Child psychiatry in Kurukshetra

Autism spectrum disorder

The autism spectrum encompasses a range of neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism and Asperger syndrome, generally known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Individuals on the autistic spectrum experience difficulties with social communication and interaction and also exhibit restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities. Symptoms are typically recognized between one and two years of age in boys. However, a lot of children are not finally diagnosed until they are older. Final diagnosis could still be given as an adolescent or even as an adult. The term "spectrum" refers to the variation in the type and severity of symptoms. Those in the mild range may function independently, while those with moderate to severe symptoms may require more substantial support in their daily lives. Long-term problems may include difficulties in performing daily tasks, creating and keeping relationships, and maintaining a job.

The cause of autism spectrum conditions is uncertain. Risk factors include having an older parent, a family history of autism, and certain genetic conditions. It is estimated that between 64% and 91% of risk is due to family history.

Signs and Symptoms

Parents or doctors may first identify ASD behaviors in infants and toddlers. School staff may recognize these behaviours in older children. Not all people with ASD will show all of these behaviors, but most will show several. There are two main types of behaviors: “restricted/repetitive behaviors” and “social communication / interaction behaviors.”

Social communication / interaction behaviours may include:

  • Getting upset by a slight change in a routine or being placed in a new or overly stimulating setting
  • Making little or inconsistent eye contact
  • Having a tendency to look at and listen to other people less often
  • Failing to, or being slow too, respond to someone calling their name or other verbal attempts to gain attention
  • Repeating words or phrases that they hear, a behavior called echolalia
  • Using words that seem odd, out of place, or have a special meaning known only to those familiar with that person’s way of communicating
  • Having an unusual tone of voice that may sound sing-song or flat and robot-like
  • Having trouble understanding another person’s point of view or being unable to predict or understand other people’s actions.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, or excessive activity and impulsivity, which are otherwise not appropriate for a person's age. Some individuals with ADHD also display difficulty regulating emotions or problems with executive function.  For a diagnosis, the symptoms should appear before a person is twelve years old, be present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities). In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.

ADHD is diagnosed approximately two times more often in boys than in girls, although the disorder is often overlooked in girls because their symptoms are often less disruptive. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. In adults, inner restlessness, rather than hyperactivity, may occur




Most or all of the following symptoms, excluding situations where these symptoms are better explained by another psychiatric or medical condition:

  • Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  • Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something they find enjoyable
  • Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing or completing a task
  • Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  • Appear not to be listening when spoken to
  • Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
  • Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  • Struggle to follow instructions
  • Have trouble understanding details; overlooks details


Most or all of the following symptoms, excluding situations where these symptoms are better explained by another psychiatric or medical condition:

  • Fidget or squirm a great deal;
  • Talk nonstop;
  • Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight;
  • Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and while doing homework;
  • Be constantly in motion;
  • Have difficulty performing quiet tasks or activities;
  • Be impatient;
  • Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences;
  • Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turn in games;
  • Often interrupt conversations or others' activities;